The rainy season has sort-of started in south Florida and with it comes flooding and discussions of the falls end of season and concurrent high, high tides for the year, flooding and the impact of sea level rise on low-lying areas. Much focus has been spent on the causes of sea level rise and the potential flooding caused by same. However the flooding can be used as a surrogate to impacts to the social and economic base of the community. By performing vulnerability assessments, coastal areas can begin planning for the impacts of climate change in order to safeguard their community’s social, cultural, environmental and economic resources. Policies need to focus on both mitigation and adaptation strategies, essentially, the causes and effects of climate change. Policy formulation should be based on sound science, realizing that policy decisions will be made and administered at the local level to better engage the community and formulate local decisions.
Making long-term decisions will be important. Businesses look at long-term viability when making decisions about relocating enterprises. The insurance industry, which has traditionally been focused on a one year vision of risk, is beginning to discuss long-term risks and not insuring property rebuild is risk-prone areas. That will affect how bankers look at lending practices, which likely will decrease property values. Hence it is in the community’s interests to develop a planning framework to adapt to sea level rise and protect vulnerable infrastructure through a long-term plan.
While uncertainties in the scale, timing and location of climate change impacts can make decision-making difficult, response strategies can be effective if planning is initiated early on. Because vulnerability can never be estimated with great accuracy due to uncertainty in the rate of warming, deglaciation and other factors, the conventional anticipation approach should be replaced or supplemented with one that recognizes the importance of building resiliency. The objectives of the research were to develop a method for planning for sea level rise, and providing a means to prioritize improvements at the appropriate time. In addition the goals were to provide guidance in developing a means to prioritize infrastructure to maximize benefit to the community by prioritizing economic and social impacts.
Adaptation planning must merge scientific understanding with political and intuitional capacity on an appropriate scale and horizon. According to Mukheibir and Ziervogel (2007), there are 10 steps to consider when creating an adaptation strategy on the municipal level. To summarize, these are as follows:
- Assess current climate trends and future projections for the region (defining the science).
- Undertake a preliminary vulnerability assessment of the community and communicate results through vulnerability maps (using GIS and other tools).
- Analyze vulnerability spatially, by overlaying development priorities with expected climate change on GIS maps to identify hotspots where adaptation activities should be focused.
- Survey current strategic plans and development priorities to reduce redundancy and understand institutional capacity.
- Develop an adaptation strategy that focuses on highly vulnerable areas. Make sure the strategy offers a range of adaptation actions that are appropriate to the local context.
- Prioritize adaptation actions using tools such as multi-criteria analysis (MCA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and/or social accounting matrices (SAM).
- Develop a document which covers the scope, design and budget of such actions (what they call a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP)).
- Engage stakeholders and decision-makers to build political support. Implement the interventions prioritized in the MAP.
- Monitor and evaluate the interventions on an ongoing basis.
- Regularly review and modify the plans at predefined intervals.
The strengths of this framework are the initial focus on location-specific science, the use of both economic and social evaluation criteria, and the notion that the plan is not a fixed document, but rather a process that evolves in harmony with a changing environment. The final two steps occur at regular intervals by the community with associated adjustments made. The next question is how to develop the data and priorities.